Thursday, 19 August 2010

Singular Vs Plural; in relation to the Contract.

Generally some Quantity surveyors are like to put following words at the end of each item description."….. As per Drawings and Specifications" Because, it is not practicable to mention all necessary items, works in a description. For an item, there may be several relavent Drawings and Specifications, then according to the common English we have to use plural words like Drawings/Specifications.

But if we write a BOQ discription with singular words, is it wrong?

According to the Contract, the answer is "NO".Because in a contract singular word may governs the plural word also. Beams and Beam may give same meaning in a contract not like in general english.

For an example in FIDIC 1999 sub clause 1.2(Interpretation)has been mentioned;

(b) words indicating the singular also include the plural and words indicating the plural also include the singular.

Now a another question, this FIDIC is a condition of contract, is the BOQ a part of the contract?

We can get a clear answer for that from sub clause 1.1(Definition), it says; 

"Contract" means the Contract Agreement, the Letter of Acceptance, the Letter of Tender, these Conditions, the Specification, the Drawings, the Schedules, and the further documents (if any) which are listed in theContract Agreement or in the Letter of Acceptance.

BOQ is a schedule as stated under sub clause 1.1, in

Monday, 26 July 2010

Meaning of the Hyphen mark(-)

Standard methods of measurements are with several divisions which provides list of descriptive features of work. For an example in CESMM3, has three divisions and SMM have five divisions.
E.g. Class D in CESMM3 (Item 4 &5)
Division 1 – Buildings/Other structures

Division 2 – Brickwork/Concrete

Division 3 – Volume not exceeding 50m3/ 50-100m3

In some divisions it has provided descriptions with hyphen mark(-), e.g. 50-100m3.

Some Qs’s may not clear about the meaning of hyphen mark used in standard method of measurements.

Simply 50-100 means; all numbers from 50 to 100,  excluding 50 but including 100.

Then will see what has stated in few standard methods of measurements.

CESMM3 has stated that “ A hyphen between two dimensions means a range of dimensions which includes all dimensions exceeding that preceding than hyphen but not exceeding that following then hyphen.“

SMM7 has stated that “The use of hyphen between two dimensions in this documents or in bill of quantities shall means a range of dimensions exceeding the first dimension stated but not exceeding the second.”


While I’m doing a revised BOQ and cost estimate for a substation, I have noticed transformer type is revised to resin type from oil type. The Standard method of measurement for the project is CESMM3.

In CESMM3, class Z is for Simple building works incidental to civil engineering works. Transformers can be measured under class Z with following divisions.

First division – Cabled building services

Second division – Equipment and fittings

Third division – Equipment


What are oil type and resin type transformers?

Oil cooled transformer

For large transformers used in outdoor such as power distribution, the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates.

The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings, and in larger ratings an air-cooled radiator is used.

Where a higher rating is required, or where the transformer is used in a building or underground, oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used.

Indoor transformers are needed to be fire resistant, then it is not advisable to use oil type within a buildings. But fire-resistant liquids such as silicone can be used as substitute to oil.


Cast resin transformers

Cast-resin power transformers encase the windings in epoxy resin. This is one of a dry transformer type. The dry transformers are the transformers without active part immersed in a liquid insulation.

This type is more costly than oil cooled type. This type is generally used in indoor locations.







Thursday, 6 May 2010

Plenum Box

Plenum Box is a mechanical item relating to the HVAC.

Purpose - To be connected to the Diffuser or Grille to the duct.

How to connect - Diffuser or Grille from outlet side and the inlet side connected to the duct. It can be connected either with galvanized duct or flexible duct

Type - Some are isolated Plenum Box and some are come with Diffuser or Grille

Friday, 22 January 2010

Plaster / Render


Render is 3 parts sand mixed with 1 part cement.
Plasticizer and waterproofing agent added to create a waterproof layer for exterior applications.


Plaster contains gypsum and is for internal applications only, as moisture will cause it to crumble.
old fashioned form of plaster is Lime plaster where the binding gypsum is replaced with lime.

Weight of plaster required (Kg) = ( Plaster Area(m2) x Plaster Thickness(mm) )/ 1.5

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